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The Future European Energy System

The future energy system in Europe needs to be decarbonized and thus be based almost exclusively on renewable energy sources. Therefore it is challenged by the intermittent nature of renewables and requires several flexibility options. The interaction between different options and the impact on environment and society are in the focus of this contribution. It has been the core objective of the Reflex research project funded by the H2020 EU research programme and is reflected in the book “The Future European Energy System – Renewable Energy, Flexibility Options and Technological Progress” appjust published by SpringerNature.

The book analyzes the transition toward a low-carbon energy system in Europe under the aspects of flexibility and technological progress. By covering the main energy sectors – including the industry, residential, tertiary and transport sector as well as the heating and electricity sector – the analysis assesses flexibility requirements in a cross-sectoral energy system with high shares of renewable energies. The authors apply models and tools from various research fields, including techno-economic learning, fundamental energy system modeling, and environmental and social life cycle as well as health impact assessment, to develop an innovative and comprehensive energy models system (EMS). Moreover, the contributions examine renewable penetrations and their contributions to climate change mitigation, and the impacts of available technologies on the energy system.

Mobility Package 1 and impacts on combined transport sector

Mobility Package 1 e impatti sul trasporto combinato

The study, carried out by TRT on behalf of the European Commission (DG MOVE), provides the analysis of the impacts on the combined transport sector of Regulation 2020/1055 amending Regulation 1072/2009/EU (Mobility Package 1); specifically, the new provisions allowing Member States to apply the so-called “cabotage restrictions” to road legs of international combined transport (CT) operations if those road legs do not cross a border. In order to gather input for a qualified ex-ante assessment on the potential impacts, a survey was carried out addressing two types of CT operators: transport organisers and terminal operators, covering all modal combinations and a wide range of Member States. The data and the information collected focuses on the compliance strategies envisaged by the CT operators and on the impacts that the new rules could have on their activity.

Link to the project page.

 Download the final report (inlc exec. summary)

 Download only executive summary

Re-Thinking mobility poverty

The recently-terminated HiReach project has just published a book entitled “Re-thinking Mobility Poverty. Understanding User´s Geographies, Backgrounds and Aptitudes”. TRT, the HiReach coordinator, directly contributed of the writing several chapters.

IThe book, which is based on the analytical phase of project, seeks to better conceptualise and define mobility poverty, addressing both its geographies and socio-economic landscapes.

It examines the social construction of mobility poverty by delving into mobility patterns and needs as they are differently experienced by social groups in different geographical situations and also offers a comparison of the global phenomenon through fieldwork conducted in the six different HiReach study regions.

The book is released in hardcopy by the world’s leading academic publisher Routledge, and can be purchased here.

Open Access is also available here.

Link to the project page.

Study on employment and social impacts of connected and automated driving (CAD)

TRT together with Ecorys (lead), M-Five, VTT, SEURECO, ERTICO, UITP and IRU analysed the employment and social impacts of connected and automated driving (CAD). The 16-month study was finalised end of last year and has now been published. The study was implemented for the Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD) of the European Commission. It provides an analysis of the short, medium- and long-term impacts of CAD on jobs, employment, skills and knowledge, as well as an investigation and elaboration of options in key policy areas in order for the European Union to take timely action.

The main report presents four different scenarios outlining future CAD deployment and fleet compositions up to 2050. The main part of the report provides an analysis of the employment and social impacts along these four scenarios, highlighting expected quantitative as well as qualitative impacts. Results show likely severe social impacts on the road transport sector. In exchange with stakeholders, we developed 22 policy options to address this transition. The policy options are presented in the final part of the report. These policy options have been operationalised by adding a timeline and by describing the role of various actors with the goal of setting the groundwork for a social roadmap for CAD deployment. The supporting annexes provide additional information with more detailed findings, as well as information on the methodology used to come to these results.

2nd Air Cargo Observatory Study – The air freight in Italy

This document, written by TRT for “Cluster Cargo Aereo” (ANAMA, Assaeroporti, Assohandlers e IBAR), analyses and compare Italian air cargo market with European competitors.

This study is completed with the results of a survey sent to manufacture and shipping companies, which made possible to deepen the knowledge of the strategic role of air cargo traffic, and with a statistical analysis that covers the period 2008-2019 and different categories of products.

Eventually, this document is enriched with an annex dedicated to Covid-19 impact over air cargo traffic, which revealed an high degree of resilience for all of players in this economic sector.

Link to the project page.

Report available only in Italian.

Download the report

Implementation of the European roadworthiness package

This study, carried out by TRT who had lead a multidisciplinary international consortium made by OIR, Arcadia International and M&E Factory, further supported by CORTE, checks how EU Member States have transposed the package from the road safety perspective, determines whether the transposition has effectively led to the application of common standards, and check whether the national measures transposing the safety provisions of the package are sufficient and adequately shaped to achieve its safety objectives.

These goals required the analysis of legal transpositions by Member States, performed by considering the national legal measures transposing the roadworthiness package as they had been notified to the EC (more than 450 documents from 27 Member States), and a direct survey among responsible authorities at national level involved 23 different organization from 21 MS completed by 7 direct interview to ministries and other national authorities.

Link to the project page.

The study is available here.

Survey on International Merchandise Transport – 2019

This paper is a summary of the surveys on international freight carried by TRT for Banca d’Italia (Italian national bank) in 2019.

It includes main figures of the sample surveys carried by TRT for Banca d’Italia dating back to 1998. It is part of the balance of payments, in the section of international freight transport. In 2019 TRT interviewed 160 circa of the main international freight operators, with the aim to find out information regarding freight rates and ancillary costs. Moreover, market shares of carriers by nationality has been estimated.

During 2019 the reduction of the share of transport cost on imported and exported goods’ value diminished. Average costs per tonne remained almost constant in road transport, with an increment of full-load fees and a reduction of partial-load fees. Freight rates in rail transport are diminished, particularly for bulk transport. Air cargo average costs diminished considerably, especially for exports. As for maritime transport, average costs increased moderately, due to the depreciation of the euro-dollar exchange rate.

Link to the project page.

Report available only in Italian

Download the report

Sustainable Transport Infrastructure Charging and Internalisation of Transport Externalities

pubblicazione external costs of transportTRT is partner of the international consortium appointed by the European Commission DG MOVE to carry out the study “Sustainable Transport Infrastructure Charging and Internalisation of Transport Externalities”. The study was delivered in June 2019 and presents the main conclusions and transport policy applications. The study assesses the extent to which the “user pays” and “polluter pays” principles are implemented in the EU countries and in other advanced economies.

The study includes:

– an executive summary

– an update of the Handbook on external costs, which includes an analysis of the total and average external costs: Handbook

– and more information which is available on the webpage.

Link to the project.

Survey on International Merchandise Transport – 2018

This paper is a summary of the surveys on international freight carried by TRT for Banca d’Italia (Italian national bank) in 2018.

It includes main figures of the sample surveys carried by TRT for Banca d’Italia dating back to 1998. It is part of the balance of payments, in the section of international freight transport, in line with methodological conventions of the 6th manual of International Monetary Fund. In 2019 TRT interviewed 200 circa of the main international freight operators, with the aim to find out information regarding freight rates and ancillary costs. Moreover, market shares of carriers by nationality has been estimated.

During 2018 road transport had a slight decrease of freight rates, with differences according with the reference area. Rail sector had a generalized increase on intermodal freight and a decrease in conventional.

Air freight cargo had a significant increase in average costs, especially for exportation, due to the increase of demand. Maritime sector registered an average reduction of costs because of a depreciation of tax exchange between EUR and USD and because of a slowdown of world economy.